From grapes to wine
South America is one of the world’s largest wine-producing areas. Argentina is number five and Chile, number ten in the world’s top-ten wine producing list. Other important countries in the wine industry are Brazil and Uruguay. Almost all Argentine wine comes from the area of Mendoza.
Unfair working conditions
According to an article from lantinamerika.nu workers in the wine industry earns a minimum salary of 3 Swedish crowns for have been claiming 20 grapes.
Many people work black, which means they won’t have access to compensation for being sick nor any mother-time off. They also work long hours and they have no access to running water or toilet visits. It’s impossible for them to live on this salary, especially if they have children.
The workers feel that they don’t get any respect; they want people to listen to them. It happens that the workers become ill during working hours, some workers have even died from the injuries of toxins.
The wines should be approved by a special provincial team.
South America has an extensive wine and Argentina produces 1.8 million wines in one year.
In 2004, Chile exported 75 percent of everything they produced. Argentina and Chile have done good valued wines.
Argentina is also the largest wine producer in South America.
There are also wine-farmers who only grow grapes to sell to someone else who makes wine of them.
But if the farmers are to sell their grapes to someone else, long-term and close co-operation with the buyer are required.
We think it is unfair that not everyone will get as much money even if they do as much work.
That is the difference between working in various countries.
How is the wine?
They wine is estimated by sight, smell, taste and summary.
There are several different scales for scoring, and they’ll also judge whether the wine is not affordable, affordable or very affordable.
In the production of organic wine, no chemical fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides or other pesticides are used. Organic viticulture has increased in recent decades and there are organizations that distribute rights to use certain labels for organic wines. Even the best wines in higher price ranges, often close to the organic wines in production methods, even if they lack the organic label.
Manufacture of wines
Ethanol (alcohol) is produced by fermenting glucose. This occurs in an oxygen free environment in large yeasts-thoughts of stainless steel or in the traditional way, in large wooden barrels.
When fermentation, unicellular microorganisms is required, also known as yeast fungi or, more specifically, mushrooms of the genus Saccharo’myces cerevi’siae. Cause it’s only those fungi that have the ability to break down the sugar in the grape juice.
The formula for this reaction is:
C6H12 O6 → 2 C2H5OH and 2 CO2
According to the “equal solves equal”-rule ethanol is a good solvent for other polar substances. But ethanol can also address topics that are “insoluble” in water, this because of the ethanol chain can bind to other organic molecules, carbon chains, such as hydrocarbons. Thus, ethanol’s OH group is dissolved in water (polar and polar), and the carbon chain is opposed to this. But because the carbon chain is so short in ethanol, the OH group has the upper hand.
Spraying of grapes
Chemical pesticides are used to kill unwanted plants and animals. When these toxins are dispersed into the environment it affects the biodiversity and, ultimately, even us humans. *
Pesticides are used in large quantities in grape productions. Grapes are more specifically one of the foods that most are sprayed with chemical pesticides. Since the infestations are anticipated, grapes are regularly sprayed with chemicals, which has led to that the pesticides no longer have as much effect on fungal infestation.
Traditionally sulfur or copper-based preparations are used. Copper and sulfur are in high levels poisonous and it’s a huge environmental problem here on the earth. Copper, which counts as a heavy metal, affects the microorganisms in the soil and the plants have it more difficult to grow and develop in the soil. Nature can not break down these substances, and therefore, they stay for a very long period. These works on the surface and the consequence is that you’ve got to spray on a regular basis since the substances rains off. * They are then transmitted to, for example, lakes and streams, and the entire ecosystem is affected – species exterminates and these substances are taken up by plants. Plants that are eaten by animals, and animals that are eaten by us. In this way we ingest these substances.
To combat the fungus noble rot, it has been common to use the so called systematic pesticides, which means that the pesticide penetrates into the fruit and seems from within. In these cases, washing the fruit before consuming is not helpful.
By: Anna Phan, Ida Johansson, Ida Hasselholm and Carla Furtado